Major medical discoveries of recent times

Genome Editing

The researchers call genome editing an ideal way to fight hereditary diseases, oncology and so on. However, “normal” genome editing can cause changes not only in a given place, but in the whole body and have unpredictable consequences. Therefore, the most promising methods are considered to be gentle – for example, CRISPR, in which the genome is not edited (and thus there is no risk of damage), and the cell is introduced genetic structures that produce something like an artificially created activator, which includes the desired gene. In 2018, this method was the first to activate the genes needed to reprogram skin cells into stem cells. A little later, the same method was able to activate certain genes associated with saturation and thus cure obesity in the mouse.

Brain Atlas creation

How is consciousness realized? How do memory and thinking work? Scientists have dozens of hypotheses and no answers to this question. In 2018, the full atlas of the mouse brain was published, which means that the creation of an atlas of the human brain, which will help to solve many mysteries, is not far off”.

Protection against Alzheimer’s disease

Major medical discoveries of recent times

Life expectancy is growing worldwide, which means that more and more people will face senile dementia (dementia), which already affects 47 million people in the world today. The developers promise that the DNA-vaccine for Alzheimer’s disease (the main cause of dementia) will halve the number of patients with senile dementia – if it successfully passes clinical trials (while the trials were conducted on rodents). Tests on the first variant of the vaccine have been curtailed due to the large number of side effects.

HIV vaccine

The new vaccine showed the ability to quickly strengthen the immune system activity to fight the virus. In experiments, the new vaccine identified antibodies that neutralized HIV strains within 8 weeks.

New liver

Doctors at Botkin Hospital for a patient with cancer, whose liver was 80% metastasized, grew a new one. For this purpose, a drug was injected into the affected part, gluing the vessels (thus, the tumor nutrition was cut off), and the healthy part grew to the right size.

Intrauterine brain surgery

Major medical discoveries of recent times

The fetus was diagnosed with hydrocephaly (brain dropsy) at the 28th week of pregnancy. Neurosurgeons from Yekaterinburg and Tyumen with the help of special equipment got access to the baby’s brain and provided the outflow of fluid. Carrying on the pregnancy continued, the birth took place at 38 weeks, a healthy baby was born.

New method of treatment of the consequences of a heart attack

A team of researchers from Lomonosov Moscow State University and the National Medical Research Center for Cardiology developed a method of gene therapy to treat the consequences of myocardial infarction. Two genes are delivered to the affected areas of the heart, which encode the proteins that are responsible for the growth of cells in the inner wall of the vessels and protect the heart cells from death in case of blood supply failure.

Protection against allergies

Scientists from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, using gene editing technology, have achieved the birth of mice that do not suffer from any form of allergy. It is assumed that the modified animals will help study previously unknown mechanisms of allergy development.

Biochips for cancer diagnostics

Test system for immunocyte-chemical research, which allows to determine the presence or absence of a malignant tumor in a patient at the first contact with the clinic. Biochips can diagnose malignant processes of any localization. The biomaterial interacts with different antibodies. During the reaction, the cell begins to glow. This glow allows you to instantly detect the presence of tumor cells.